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- Ph.D. Alumni and Dissertations | U-M LSA Department of Classical Studies
- When words are not enough
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Susan H. Clifford C. Matthew A. Netta R. Jennifer B. Brad E. David D. Gina M. Geoffrey S. Deborah R. Roger T. Kristin O. James V. Diane M. Alison M. James A. John N. Philip L. James J. Thomas A. Hermann S. Marie T. Groton St. Dennis P. Zwei Bhcher von John J.
Ph.D. Alumni and Dissertations | U-M LSA Department of Classical Studies
Winkler und David M. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, eds. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, New York Review of Books October 8, , 39 16 Cover-title " A Feminist Theory of Justice. McCarthy, ed. Perspectives on Classical, Political and Social Thought. Savage, Md. Posner's Sex and Reason. University of Chicago Law Review Fall , 59 4 See also "Venus in Robes" Nussbaum on Philosophy and Literature," pp.
Review of Andrea Dworkin's Mercy. Boston Review April Replies to letters in the September issue. New Republic April 20, , 16 ".
When words are not enough
Part of a special section on "The State of Philosophy. Nussbaum and Amartya Sen, eds. Papers presented at a conference sponsored by the World Institute for Development Economics Research. Includes reply to discussion articles. Warum Angela K. Translation by Max Looser of " Justice for Women!
A Philosophical Exchange. With John Finnis on the other side. Translation by Jean Kempf of "Justice for Women! See The Fragility of Goodness , pp. Frankfurt: Fischer, See "Pity and Mercy: Nietzsche's Stoicism" Edited with Jacques Brunschwig. Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Hellenisticum. Nussbaum and Jacques Brunschwig, eds. New York: Cambridge University Pres, Edited with Amartya Sen.
The Quality of Life.
Conclusion: situating recent debates
Philosophical Inquiries, 2. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, Revised versions of papers that were presented at a conference in memory of Gregory Vlastos, held at the University of California, Berkeley, in May New York Review of Books October 20, , 41 17 See " Feminism and Philosophy" Rudnytsky and Ellen Handler Spitz, eds. Whole issue devoted to this piece, with replies, and Nussbaum's replies. Schacht, ed. Appendix Four, pp. Stuttgartner Hegel-Kongress Veroffentlichungen der Internationalen Hegel-Vereinigung, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, Martin Classical Lectures, new series, Vol.
Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Reference, Altham and Ross Harrison, eds. Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover, eds. Followed by commentary by Catherine Lutz, pp.
Rome: Donzelli; Milan: Reset, John Simmons, et al. Princeton: Princeton University Press, See "Equity and Mercy" Basic Problems in Philosophy Series. Belmont, Calif. See " Equity and Mercy" German translation by Alexander Staudbacher of "Feminism and Philosophy" La balsa de la medusa, Baur who revised my notes on the bullae in Berlin and read my manuscript, to Professor G. Vernadsky who has verified and corrected the references in the Catalogue and notes, and finally to Professor A. Harmon, w T hose help in giv- ing more idiomatic form to my paper and in the revision of the proofs has been invaluable.
November 11, , New Haven. Inside this tube, almost ex- actly in the middle, are generally found impressions of one or more strings. In the core of the bulla there are holes left in the clay by decayed strings. Within the tube one sometimes, but rarely, finds remains of carbonized or decayed stuff in larger or smaller quantities PI. The surface of the lump is covered with impressions of seals, of larger and smaller size.
Some large bullae bear as many as forty impressions, some smaller have just one or two. The distri- bution of the impressions is chaotic. On most of the specimens a line of impressed dots, more or less regularly distributed, verti- cally divides the surface of the bulla. The number of dots varies from four to thirteen and more. There is no certain relation be- tween the number of the seals and that of the dots.
The same seal is sometimes impressed twice on the same bulla. Typical in this respect is one of the specimens in the Cabinet des Medailles our PI. Ill, 6; diam. Three private seals of Greek character Amor, peacock, gazelle have each been impressed twice on the surface of the bulla.
Peculiar is the bulla of the Yale Babylonian Collection No. Of nine impressions three or even four show the same female head PI. Ill, 5. Some of the bullae are of grayish, yellowish, or reddish color; i. Whether they have been baked or not is difficult to say.
I think that most of them were never subjected to the action of fire. The only exceptions are those which show a black or blackish color. These certainly have been affected by fire. Parts of the temple in which the bullae were kept may have been burned. Most of the extant bullae were found in the ruins of the age-old Sumerian and Babylonian city of Uruk Erech , modern Warka, one of the largest and most promising sites in Babylonia. The ruins of this city were visited and partly excavated by Loftus, the well-known English explorer.
After the war the concession for excavating Warka was given to Yale University, but the University was not able to find money for the project. The concession, therefore, was transferred to the Ger- mans again, who are now systematically exploring these interest- ing and promising ruins. Some of the Warka bullae were found during the first German excavations and are now in the Vorderasiatische Abteilung of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin. The most important part of this ruin, carefully excavated by Mr. Jordan, was the temple of Anu and Antum Jordan, op.
This temple, according to the in- scriptions on the bricks, was built on the site of a much older temple by a Hellenized Babylonian whose Babylonian name was Anunballit, son of Anubaltsaikhi, while his Greek name was Kephalon. The habit of having two names is a very common fea- ture of the life of Orchoi in the Hellenistic period as we know it from the cuneiform tablets of that time.
Excavations at Dura, II Prelim. Report, p. An epistates is known at Seleucia on the Tigris Polyb. We know the date of the building of the temple. It is the 2d Nisan of the year of the Seleucid era, which was the fifth year of the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. As we shall see later, the construction of the temple coincides in date with the majority of the dated bullae found in its ruins.
Jor- dan, TJruk-Warka. Nach den Ausgrabungen der deutschen Orientge- sellschaft , pp. We know of the endeavors of Epiphanes to Hellenize his kingdom.
He bears the reputation, for which the Jews are re- sponsible, of having been a violent, cruel, and ruthless tyrant who had no respect for local religions and local traditions and wanted to transform all the subjects of his kingdom into Greeks at once and by violent means. The history of the Anu-Antum temple shows him in a different light. The majestic temple built by Kephalon certainly should not be attributed to Kephalon alone. Antiochus must have authorized it, and no doubt contributed a good amount of money for the creation of this gorgeous sanctu- ary. Now there is not the slightest sign of Hellenization in the temple.
The gods were Babylonian, the cult was as Babylonian as it could be, the architecture renewed the traditions of the Neo- Babylonian period. We must assume therefore that in Babylonia Antiochus in his policy toward the natives proceeded in a much more prudent and reasonable way than his Jewish enemies would make us believe he acted in Palestine. Far from destroying and robbing temples, he was building and gorgeously adorning them, in this respect quite similar to his Egyptian fellow kings, the Ptolemies. If he acted otherwise in Palestine, as the Jewish sources in- sist, his conduct was probably dictated not by religious considera- tions and blind fanaticism but by political issues, first and fore- most by the conduct of the Jews themselves.
His situation be- tween the Romans and the Parthians was difficult and it would have been a folly for him to alienate from himself the sympathies of his non-Greek subjects. The history of the temple of Uruk and an inscription of Babylon Ditt. If his conduct in Palestine was different it was no doubt because he found no other way to deal with the Jews. However that may be, let us go back to the bullae.
Found all over the various parts and rooms of the Wuswas, they are now, as I have said, scattered all over Europe and the United States in smaller or larger quantities. The largest collection I know of is in the Oriental Institute of Chicago intact and fragmentary bullae. The second largest is in Berlin. A few 9 pieces are in the Louvre, and there are 7 intact bullae and 11 fragments in the Cabinet des Medailles of the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris. Fi- nally there are some in private collections. I have seen 12 small intact bullae in the collection of Col. Allotte de la Fuye at Ver- sailles and 7 intact bullae and 2 fragments in the collection of Abbe de Genouillac, the well-known excavator of Telloh, at Paris.
Of these groups of bullae some have been published more or less adequately ; viz. The rest are unpublished. String holes may be noticed going through all of them. I have not seen any such clay medallions in any of the other museums which I have studied from this point of view except in the Cabinet des Medailles in Paris where I noticed two that were somewhat similar, one of which was found at Susa our PI.
IV, 7 and 9. The medallions of Berlin all come from Warka. Some of the impressions on these clay medallions are identical with impressions found on the bullae described above, and were made no doubt with the same signets. Many bullae are reproduced on Pis. Ori- ent gesellschaft, LXVI , 13 ff. Clay, Babylonian Records in the Library of J. Pierpont Morgan, part IV, , pp. Delaporte, Catalogue des cylindres cachets et pierres grave es de style oriental, Musee du Louvre, II , pp. A, Pis. Driver, Journ. Speleers, Catalogue des intailles et empreintes orient ales des Musees Royaux du Cinquantenaire , ch.
XI, pp. Allotte de la Fuye: Rev. Allotte de la Fuye, Rev. I shall deal with this point again later in this paper. It is a pity that nobody has made a careful comparison between the seal-impressions on the bullae and on the tablets PI. I, 2 : tablets and bullae found at Uruk.
The little objects which I have described above and which I am going to publish and to analyze in this paper belong to a class well known to all students of oriental, Greek, and Roman an- tiquity. In discussing this class, let me begin with the Orient. From time immemorial both in Elam and in Sumeria seals of various forms were commonly used both by kings and priests and by common people. Impressing the seal served the purpose of tes- tifying to the genuineness and integrity either of a text written on a tablet or of things contained in one or another sort of con- tainer : a jar, a box, a basket, a flask, a bag, a skin, or the like.
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There is no need to dwell upon this well-known fact. Beside these impressions on tablets, hundreds of lumps of clay with seal-impressions have been found all over the Near East. Many of them have been published, but there exists no general study of their use and purpose. However, from occasional and more or less casual remarks one may gather that most of them were used for closing and sealing containers of goods of one or another form. We find, for instance, clay envelopes which were spread over a wooden, or clay, or textile stopper of a jar or flask, and then stamped by means of one or more seals.
We have also late M. Frohner which is now in the Cabinet des Medailles of Paris. That of Susa shows a beautiful portrait of Seleucus IV on the obverse and an impression of the index finger on the reverse PI. IV, 7, cf. The other shows also a portrait head, probably of a king Antiochus I or lit , and the same finger impression on the back PI. IV, 9. Since none has a hole for a string I am inclined to think that the medallions are either regular clay cameos or models for cameos or incised gems made by a Greek artist. Others of the oriental clay lumps have more or less the form of our bullae : spherical, lentoidal, ovoidal, or trapezoidal lumps of clay which apparently were suspended on a cord.
It is inter- esting to note that some of these bullae, like some of the jar- envelopes, bear impressions of royal signets. For example, Egyp- tian and Hittite royal seals were noticed on lumps of clay found by Layard at Kujundjik. Similar clay lumps were used in Su- merian and Babylonian archives for sealing baskets of classified documents. Other little bullae were originally suspended from the necks of domestic animals, etc. Meissner, Bdbylonien und Assyrien, I , Those in the Louvre are published in L.
Delaporte, Cata- logue des cylindres orientaux etc. K5 ; those of the Cabinet des M6dailles in L. Delaporte, Catalogue des cylindres , etc. A clay seal of much earlier times similar to those of Assyria was found at Elam and is now in the Louvre. A good survey of the whole question regard- ing the jar-envelopes and clay bullae found at Susa will be found in L.
Les Bulles. Elle offre un developpement plus aise de Tempreinte. Trou de corde a chaque extremite. They belong to the time of Bur-Sin and bear the seal-impressions of two scribes and an inscrip- tion which says that the bulla was used for sealing a bag. A similar bulla now at Brussels Avas also, according to the inscription, used for sealing a bag. They do not have the same tube of ovoidal section, or impressions of strings in the tube and remains of them in the mass of the clay, or the same distribution of seal-impressions all around the bulla.
Furthermore in not one of the museums have I seen any monu- ments identical with the clay medallions with seal-impressions of Warka. Similar clay seals abound, but not one may be called identical. Thus we must conclude that though the clay bullae and the clay impressions of Warka are certainly derived from the same tradition which had produced the pre-Hellenistic bullae of the Near East they form a class of their own and must be explained by a close study of their peculiar form and of the character of the seals impressed on them.
Nor will we be able to find monuments identical with the clay bullae of Orchoi in the world of the Greek and Italian city states and that of the Hellenistic monarchies. It is easier to find analo- gies to the single clay medallions of Orchoi. These last are akin to a well-known sort of Greek clay seals closely connected with the history of Greek business documents and archives.
The habit of sealing documents and letters by means of clay seals was common all over the Greek world. Hundreds of clay seals originally affixed to documents written on papyrus or parch- ment were found, e. Bullae which were used in the Sumerian Archives found at Telloh, now in the Louvre have been published and dealt with by Col. Delaporte, Catalogue des cylindres orientaux , Vol.
I , Pis. II, Pis. Curious little Hittite bullae of conical form from the collection of the late M. Schlumberger now in the Cabinet des M6dailles have been published and discussed by E. Pottier, Rev. They remind one of the little truncated pyramids which were used for a very long period from the Presargonic time to the Persian period for identifying cattle.
The bullae hung prob- ably from the necks of the royal and sacred sheep, goats, cows, etc.
They bear the impression of a seal and the name of a herdsman and some- times of a dog. See the works of Col. Allotte de la Fuye quoted above and L. Delaporte, Catalogue des cylindres etc. B, a-b; a-b. I have seen many bullae of this type and of the Persian period in the collection of Allotte de la Fuye. The evidence for the habit of sealing writings and other things in Attica has been col- lected by Professor R. However, the lack of actual sealed letters and documents from the city-state period of Greece leaves many questions on the modes and purpose of sealing the documents in Greek city-states open.
Rubensohn, Elephantine Papyri , pp. Scattered impressions have been often found in other Greek cities; e. Wiegand und H. Schrader, Priene, p. Zahn ; Myndus in Caria under the floor of a Roman house excavated by W. Paton, H. Walters, Catalogue of the Terracottas in. A careful search in our Museums of An- tiquities will certainly yield a rich and interesting harvest. On Attica, see Robert J. I leave aside the information which we possess as re- gards Italy and the Roman world since it is with objects of Hellenistic times and of Eastern regions that I am dealing.
One of the excavated parts of the city of Cyrene is the agora which covers a large area on both sides of one of the main streets of the city. To the north of this street which runs from the agora through the cita- del to the sacred precinct of Apollo a large square, surrounded by colonnades and by various temples and occupied to a large extent by majestic altars, forms the agora proper.
To the south of the street stands the temple of Zeus Aigiochos, the capitol of the city, built in its present form in a. Close to it, and to the west, are two public buildings, one behind the other; one probably the prytaneion, another certainly the nomophylakeion — this last a long narrow room adorned with pilasters which bore originally inscriptions on their fronts and vo- tive statues on their tops. Some of the inscriptions of these pilasters five are still extant; they say all of them that a collegium of the nomophylakes of a given year six nomophylakes and three secretaries has dedicated a statue of a god or a goddess in memory of their year of service.
Some niches in the walls of the room which originally may have been windows served probably to hold in special wooden cupboards the various documents which formed the archives of the nomophylakes. Most important are the documents which still preserve their clay seals. Quite a few of them were found in Egypt and are now kept in various museums and libraries.
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To the early Hellenistic period belong the documents of Elephantine and some of the documents of the Zeno archives. A thick stratum of ashes and charcoal found in the building proves it. In this stratum of ashes and charcoal were found numerous little clay pyramids which the excavator of the place, E. VI, I , ff. None of them has been published. Ghislanzoni has suggested no date for them. I have not studied them they are now in Rome.
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According to Professor Oli verio, who has seen them, they all belong to the Hellenistic period. It is evident how closely the find of Cyrene is related to that of Uruk. It is more than probable that the archives of the nomophvlakes of Cy- rene contained not only laws and decrees but also other documents of public and perhaps private character, like the archives of the chreophy- lakes of Uruk.
Rubensohn, Elephantine Papyri , especially Pis. I and II pp. Wenger, art. I owe to the kindness of Dr. Bell the following statement as regards the Zeno papyri. T On the papyri of Elephantine we have not only single clay im- pressions of seals but larger lumps of clay with many seal-im- pressions on them. These last were used for sealing documents of the so-called first find of Elephantine.
One half of the sheet with the mal type in the 3-d cent. There are certainly a fair number still preserved among the Zeno papyri in one place or an- other, but they are not all contract-seals; some of the best were on let- ters. We have several here. There are one or two very good ones on Zeno papyri of the Michigan Collection. Later Ptolemaic seals here are those on P.
The impressions are in the Royal Ontario Mu- seum at Toronto. Those with hieroglyphic inscriptions and of purely Egyptian style have been published by Miss M. Murray, Zeitschr. A signet with the portrait of King Ptolemy IV Philopator which no doubt was used by a royal officer and by means of which impressions like those published by Milne were pro- duced was published by W. Some other clay seal-impressions, this time of the Roman period, were found in the Fayum and at Thmuis.
Most of them, however, were not used for sealing documents; see J. Milne, Joum. Walters, Cat. VII, Nos. One of those impres- sions is larger than the rest and was produced probably by the official seal of the city of Selinus or that of the priests of the temple. Groups of seal-impressions are commonly found on the envelopes which covered the stoppers of jars.
Chantre, Mission en Cappadoce , p. The clay seals used for sealing the double documents show generally the device of the owner of the seal, very rarely his name. The name was written separately near the seal either by the owner of the seal or by the scribe. Alongside the use of seals for closing documents, they were also employed in signing them. These seals too are accompanied by signatures of the owners of the seals. While the sealed double documents are common, the documents sealed and signed but not closed are rare. It is common to the whole of the Hellenistic world.
Whether it was first invented in the Orient or in Greece is con- troversial and does not concern us here. It is worthy of note, how- ever, that sealed double documents were regular in the most re- mote parts of the Seleucid Empire. Such are the parchments of Avroman published by E. Let me quote his description of them. Blanchet and E. The best and fullest treatment of the subject belongs to L. Otto, Arch, f. Wilcken, VPZ , I, f. Bell had the kindness to write me Sept.
Minns, Journ. The top or A version was in each case rolled up tightly and bound round and round with string passed through the holes in the blank space between the two versions. These holes can be clearly seen on the facsimile of II. A; on the fac- simile of I only two or three show as the mice have eaten so much away just along this line. I may add that the Dura parchments found by Cumont and by the Yale expedition show no traces of ever having been sealed.
Conclusive is the complete parchment recently published by my- self and C. The document was folded but never sealed. No holes for string are to be found in the parchment. The fact may be explained in different ways. We may suppose that the document was a copy, not the sealed original, the original being kept in the record office. Or we may suggest that in the Roman period to which the parchment belongs the use of double docu- ments was dropped altogether in Syria. They show all the fea- tures which characterize clay seals affixed or appended to docu- ments.
In describing them later in this paper I will show that all of them have string holes in the core and that in most of these holes there are still remains of decayed strings. Furthermore, some of the seals show on the back impressions of a texture which seemed to Professor P.
Baur, who has examined the seals closely for me in Berlin, very like the fiber of papyrus. The clay seals with strings and marks on the back were therefore affixed to papyrus documents. It is more difficult to explain the clay seals with string holes but with no marks on the back. According to Professor Baur, who has examined them closely, the back shows a rough surface of a lentoid shape.
The only suggestion I can make, in agreement with the opinion of Professor Baur, is that the seals were not affixed but appended to documents, as were the medieval bullae and II M. Rostovtzeff and C. I do not conceal that if I am right it will be the first time that such appended seals have disclosed themselves in the ancient world. No other explanation, however, can be given of the clay seals of Orchoi with string holes and a rough surface on the back.
It is worthy of note that the single clay seals bear no impres- sions except those of official signets. The habit of using such bullae was probably widely spread in the Hellenistic time all over Babylonia. These I shall discuss later in this pa- per. The right explanation of the use of the bullae is suggested by 12 L. Mu- seum, Publ. I have noted above that seal-impressions on the bullae are in many cases identical with seal-impressions on the cuneiform tablets found in the same place and belonging to the same time PI.
This fact, to which I shall return later in this paper, suggests the idea that the bullae were in one way or another equivalent to the cuneiform tablets. Furthermore, as I have mentioned before and will show later in commenting upon the bullae and clay seals of Orchoi, both the bullae and the seals were stamped in many cases with the same stamps or signets or seals. Since it is very probable that the single clay seals were ap- pended to or affixed on documents written on parchment or papy- rus, a similar use must perforce suggest itself for the clay bullae.
It is considerations of this kind that probably prompted both Jordan and after him Johansen to explain the bullae as clay con- tainers of documents written on parchment or papyrus. This explanation is made certain by some further considera- tions and observations.
Professor Treat B. Johnson of Yale University, Department of Chemistry, has been kind enough to analyze this for me. In his letter of May 6, , addressed to Professor Dougherty, he whites about it as follows : The material which you left with me for examination was so badly charred that it is difficult to draw absolutely definite conclusions, but from tests which I have made here, the evidence is in favor of the fact that it is probably a cellulose base.
It is too badly charred to permit me to coordinate it with protein material. It fails to give reactions which characterize protein and in every way corresponds in its behavior with a vegetable parchment which has been badly charred by age and heat. The analysis of Professor Johnson favors therefore the hypothesis that the stuff inside the bullae w? Moreover, among the bullae with and without official seals see below there are two which show impressions of private seals bearing names in Aramaic. One will be described later in this paper No. The description of the second is as follows PI. Ill, 4 : Small bulla, blackened in some parts by the action of fire.
Ten impressions of almond-shaped seals, all private and all of the Babylonian type. One has, above, a crescent; below, a solar- rosette of eight leaves. A On this name and the name of No. These are the seals of scribes who were regularly employed to write in the Aramaic character on skins or papyrus; see Dougherty, JA08, YoL 48 , pp. They may be divided into two classes, the second with two subdivi- sions : seals of private persons form the first class ; official seals, both inscribed and uninscribed, the second.
Some of the official seals are seals of the record-keepers chreophy lakes of Orchoi, some bear inscriptions which mention various taxes. Let me deal with these three groups separately. Most of the seals impressed on the bullae are seals of private persons, generally almond-shaped and of small size, with various figures engraved on them. The impressions of these seals ought to 18 B.
Meissner, Babylonien und Assyrien, I , ; M. They are very important for the study of the Graeco-Babylonian art of the Hellenistic period and the religious ideas current in Babylonia at the same time. These impressions of private seals we may divide into three classes according to their style. Some of them show a late Baby- lonian style without any visible Greek influence, some show a stronger or weaker Greek influence, some others, finally, are Greek without any Babylonian influence. Let me describe here some of the last kind — beautiful speci- mens of Hellenistic art.
A , diam. II, 1. The head is apparently a portrait of a private person, not of a king. Four other impressions on the same bulla are indistinct. Another equally beautiful though not so well-pre- served Greek portrait head will be found on a bulla of the same collection No. The por- trait 0. II, 2. Two more impressions on the same bulla show a head of Apollo r. Two more impressions on the same bulla are indistinct. Two fine portraits may be seen on two bullae of Berlin.
One a fragment, 0. VA , has been published by J. Jordan, Uruk- Warka , p.
The bust of the impression shows a beardless man r. II, 3. Besides this impression there is a fragment of another one. Also beardless is the bust on the bulla No. Less interesting are smaller portrait heads on certain bullae; e. A diam. II, 4b — head of a beardless man r. A — head of a man r. I may note in this connection that the bulla No. II, 4 a. Some of the Greek seals impressed on the bullae bear types which are quite common in the contemporary sigillography and reproduce well-known statuary types. Let me cite, for example, a bulla in the Louvre L.
Delaporte, Catalogue des cylindres, cachets et pierres gravees de style oriental , Vol. II , No. It is useless to quote parallels ; they are well known to all students of classi- cal art. I may, however, mention that the figure of Athene Pro- machos is not unfamiliar to the Seleucid coins Athene Alkis. I have seen a similar figure on one of the bullae of the Collection of Colonel Allotte de la Puye. Another bulla of the same collection shows three impressions produced by Greek gems of rare beauty : one represents the two Dioscuri riding r. Most of the Greek seals which were used in Babylonia are un- inscribed.
I know of one exception only. On one of the bullae of the Yale Babylonian Collection No. Still more interesting are the Babylonian and Graeco-Baby- lonian impressions. It is astonishing to see what a part astrology played in the life of these Hellenistic Babylonians. A dose study of all the combinations of signs of the Zodiac with certain mytho- logical figures, certain religious symbols, and certain figures of priests, which are typical for the Babylonian and Graeco-Baby- lonian seals, will probably, if taken up by a specialist, throw a vivid light not only on the religion of Babylonia in the Hellenis- tic period but on the development of astrology at the same time.
Let me produce just two examples. On a bulla of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, No. III, 1. Another bulla of the same collection, No. III, 2 ; the eagle is probably the sym- bol of the sun cf. Ill, 3. Digitized by Google 22 M. The combination on many bullae of Greek, Babylonian, and Graeco-Babylonian seal-impressions testifies again to the intimate mixture of Greek and native elements in Babylonia which was the result of the policy of some Hellenistic monarchs and which is equally attested by the study of the proper names of this period as they occur on the clay tablets of this time.
If we had the docu- ments on parchment and papyrus which were inclosed in the bullae we certainly should have the same mixture of the two legal and juridical systems — the Babylonian and the Greek. Most important, however, for the understanding of the purpose of the bullae is the fact noted by many scholars who have dealt with the bullae and the cuneiform tablets of the same time found at Warka that some of the private signets impressed on the tablets were identical with those used for the bullae.
Since in the case of the tablets the seals are accompanied by signatures and are certainly seals of the witnesses and the contracting parties, the obvious conclusion is that the seals of the bullae were im- pressed on them by witnesses and parties to business transactions PI. It has been many times observed that there was a cer- tain class of persons regularly appearing as witnesses to contracts drawn up on clay tablets, a kind of professional witness. The same men appear on the bullae, apparently in the same ca- pacity. A different suggestion which I have heard many times from various scholars who have dealt with the bullae, namely, that they were used for classifying clay tablets in the archives and were put upon pieces of reed, is less satisfactory.
It does not take into account the oval section of the tubes and the presence of remains of strings inside the tubes. While most of the bullae bear exclusively impressions of pri- vate seals, some present a greater diversity of seal-impressions. Besides impressions of private seals they bear impressions of larger seals of official character which appear also on the single clay seals of Warka. These impressions show types which coin- cide with the types of Seleucid coins: heads of the kings and various mythological figures and symbols.
They bear Greek inscriptions which always give the name of a tax and the date. These seals are of very great importance since they help us to date the various types of the seals of the chreophylakes. The Babylonian system is represented by the cuneiform tablets of the Hellenistic period found at Uruk and in other places of Babylonia. The seals of the contracting parties and of the witnesses were impressed into the wet clay of the tablet itself. Koschaker, Orient.
It is surprising that among the various clay lumps or medallions with impressions of seals found in Babylonia and Assyria there is none which can be interpreted as a seal affixed to a document written on parchment or papyrus. The Greek system on the other hand may be found in the parchments of Avroman. I have described it already. It consisted of sealing a document written on parchment or papyrus by means of single clay lumps on which seals of the parties and of the wit- nesses were impressed.